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Information about crops

 India is  geographically a vast country so it has various food and non-food crops which are cultivated in three main cropping seasons which are   rabi,kharif  and zaid. food crops -rice,wheat,millets,maize and pulses. cash crops sugercane ,oilseeds,horticulture cops,tea ,cofree,rubber,cotton and   jute.

Food Crops

Rice grows best in areas of warm, humid climate; rice requires temperatures between 20°C and 35°C and a well-distributed rainfall of about 100 cm or irrigation facilities.

Fertile soil. Delta and valley soils are the most suitable. Soils with higher clay content are preferred for its cultivation due to their better moisture retention capacity.

Cash Crops

It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an annual rainfall of 75-100cm.Medium and heavy soils where irrigation facilities are available are ideal for its cultivation.It can be grown on a variety of soils and needs manual labour from the time of sowing to harvesting.It is a long maturing crop planted between February and April. Harvesting begins in October and November.It is a soil-exhausting crop and thus needs regular application of manure or fertilisers.

Plantation Crops

The term plantation crop refers to those crops which are cultivated on an extensive scale in contiguous area, owned and managed by an individual or a company. The crops include tea, coffee, rubber, cocoa, coconut, arecanut, oil palm, palmyrah and cashew. These are high value commercial crops of greater economic importance and play a vital role in improving Indian economy, especially in view of their export potential, employment generation and poverty alleviation particularly in rural sector. Coconut, cashewnut, cocoa, arecanut, oil palm and palm yrah come under Ministry of Agriculture while tea, coffee and rubber are dealt by Ministry of Commerce. The plantation crops covered in this checklist are arecanut, cashewnut, cocoa and coconut.

Horticulture crops

It is generally accepted by researchers and educators in horticultural science that horticultural crops include: tree, bush and perennial vine fruits; perennial bush and tree nuts; vegetables (roots, tubers, shoots, stems, leaves, fruits and flowers of edible and mainly annual plants);